br Conclusions br This is the first study to investigate
This is the first study to investigate the relationship between nicotine dependence and genotypes according to smoking status in Chinese patients with lung cancer. Health care workers should pay attention to the duration of smoking and the initial age of smoking of patients who failed to quit smoking after diagnosis of lung cancer. SNPs of CHRNA3 (rs578776) and CHRNA4 (rs1044396 and rs2229959) were associated with the success of smoking cessation after the diagnosis of lung cancer. Clinical practice points
The duration of smoking in the failure to quit smoking group was significantly higher than those in the successful smoking cessation group.
The initial smoking age in the failure to quit smoking group was significantly younger than those in the successful smoking cessation group.
Disclosure The authors declared no potential conflict of interest.
References 1. Mirza S, Bockorny B, Sittig R, Bastian L. Inpatient Smoking Cessation Counseling and
3. National Center for Chronic Disease P HPOoS, Health. The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US). 2014:Reports of the Surgeon General.
4. Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24:731-743.
5. Etter JF, Hoda JC, Perroud N, et al. Association of Compound48 / 80 coding for the alpha-4, alpha-5, beta-2 and beta-3 subunits of nicotinic receptors with cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence. Addictive behaviors. 2009;34:772-775. 6. Lou XY, Chen GB, Yan L, et al. A generalized combinatorial approach for detecting
gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interactions with application to nicotine dependence.
7. Sahoo SS, Bodenreider O, Rutter JL, Skinner KJ, Sheth AP. An ontology-driven semantic mashup of gene and biological pathway information: application to the domain of nicotine dependence. Journal of biomedical informatics. 2008;41:752-765. 8. Wei J, Chu C, Wang Y, et al. Association study of 45 candidate genes in nicotine dependence in Han Chinese. Addictive behaviors. 2012;37:622-626.
9. Li MD, Lou XY, Chen G, Ma JZ, Elston RC. Gene-gene interactions among CHRNA4, CHRNB2, BDNF, and NTRK2 in nicotine dependence. Biological psychiatry. 2008;64:951-957. 10. Greenbaum L, Rigbi A, Lipshtat N, et al. Association of nicotine dependence susceptibility gene, CHRNA5, with Parkinson's disease age at onset: gene and smoking status interaction. Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2013;19:72-76.
11. Chen LS, Xian H, Grucza RA, et al. Nicotine dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders: examination of specific genetic variants in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 nicotinic receptor genes. Drug and alcohol dependence. 2012;123 Suppl 1:S42-51. 12. van der Aalst CM, de Koning HJ. Biochemical verification of the self-reported smoking status of screened male smokers of the Dutch-Belgian randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial. Lung Cancer. 2016;94:96 -101.
13. Gu F, He Y, Mao Y, et al. Risk factors for nicotine dependence in Chinese patients with lung cancer. The Journal of international medical research. 2019;47:391-397.
14. Rios-Bedoya CF, Snedecor SM, Pomerleau CS, Pomerleau OF. Association of withdrawal features with nicotine dependence as measured by the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Addictive behaviors. 2008;33:1086-1089.
15. Prochaska JJ, Leek DN, Hall SE, Hall SM. Cognitive interviews for measurement evaluation of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Addictive behaviors. 2007;32:793-802. 16. Caraballo RS, Kruger J, Asman K, et al. Relapse among cigarette smokers: the CARDIA longitudinal study - 1985-2011. Addictive behaviors. 2014;39:101-106.
17. Ling D, Niu T, Feng Y, Xing H, Xu X. Association between polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene and early smoking onset: an interaction risk on nicotine dependence. Journal of human genetics. 2004;49:35-39. 18. Chernyavsky AI, Shchepotin IB, Grando SA. Mechanisms of growth-promoting and
tumor-protecting effects of epithelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. International immunopharmacology. 2015;29:36-44.
19. Improgo MR, Scofield MD, Tapper AR, Gardner PD. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster: dual role in nicotine addiction and lung cancer. Progress in neurobiology. 2010;92:212-226. 20. Lassi G, Taylor AE, Timpson NJ, et al. The CHRNA5-A3-B4 Gene Cluster and Smoking: From Discovery to Therapeutics. Trends in neurosciences. 2016;39:851-861.
21. Zhang Y, Jia Y, Li P, et al. Reciprocal activation of alpha5-nAChR and STAT3 in nicotine-induced human lung cancer cell proliferation. Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao. 2017;44:355-362.